References Abstract The value of physical or corporal punishment is disputed among psychologists; some regard it as harmless, while many others consider it potentially harmful. Some researchers have controversially suggested that parental use of physical punishment may be causally related to the development of aggression.
Meeting of victims of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It includes rape, defined as the physically forced or otherwise coerced penetration of the vulva or anus with a penis, other body part or object. If perpetrated during childhood, sexual violence can lead to increased smoking,  drug and alcohol misuse, and risky sexual behaviors in later life.
It is also associated with perpetration of violence and being a victim of violence. Many of the risk factors for sexual violence are the same as for domestic violence. Risk factors specific to sexual violence perpetration include beliefs in family honor and sexual purity, ideologies of male sexual entitlement and weak legal sanctions for sexual violence.
Few interventions to prevent sexual violence have been demonstrated to be effective. School-based programmes to prevent child sexual abuse by teaching children to recognize and avoid potentially sexually abusive situations are run in many parts of the world and appear promising, but require further research.
To achieve lasting change, it is important to enact legislation and develop policies that protect women; address discrimination against women and promote gender equality; and help to move the culture away from violence. Elder abuse Elder maltreatment is a single or repeated act, or lack of appropriate action, occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust which causes harm or distress to an older person.
This type of violence constitutes a violation of human rights and includes physicalsexualpsychologicalemotional; financial and material abuse; abandonment; neglect ; and serious loss of dignity and respect. Data on the extent of the problem in institutions such as hospitals, nursing homes and other long-term care facilities are scarce.
Elder maltreatment can lead to serious physical injuries and long-term psychological consequences. Elder maltreatment is predicted to increase as many countries are experiencing rapidly ageing populations.
Many strategies have been implemented to prevent elder maltreatment and to take action against it and mitigate its consequences including public and professional awareness campaigns, screening of potential victims and abuserscaregiver support interventions e.
Their effectiveness has, however, not so far been well-established. These studies — investigated what the authors called "targeted violence," described the "path to violence" of those who planned or carried out attacks and laid out suggestions for law enforcement and educators.
A major point from these research studies is that targeted violence does not just "come out of the blue". Its causes are complex and occur at different levels.
To represent this complexity, the ecological, or social ecological model is often used. The following four-level version of the ecological model is often used in the study of violence: The first level identifies biological and personal factors that influence how individuals behave and increase their likelihood of becoming a victim or perpetrator of violence: For intimate partner violence, a consistent marker at this level of the model is marital conflict or discord in the relationship.
In elder abuseimportant factors are stress due to the nature of the past relationship between the abused person and the care giver. The third level explores the community context—i.
Risk at this level may be affected by factors such as the existence of a local drug trade, the absence of social networks, and concentrated poverty. All these factors have been shown to be important in several types of violence. Finally, the fourth level looks at the broad societal factors that help to create a climate in which violence is encouraged or inhibited: Child-rearing[ edit ] Cross-cultural studies have shown that greater prevalence of corporal punishment of children tends to predict higher levels of violence in societies.
For instance, a analysis of pre-industrial societies found that corporal punishment was more prevalent in societies which also had higher rates of homicide, assault, and war. Straus believes that disciplinary spanking forms "the most prevalent and important form of violence in American families", whose effects contribute to several major societal problems, including later domestic violence and crime.
Neurobiologist Jan Volavka emphasizes that, for those purposes, "violent behavior is defined as intentional physically aggressive behavior against another person. Among prehistoric humans, there is archaeological evidence for both contentions of violence and peacefulness as primary characteristics.
For example, in a state where execution is a legalized punishment we do not typically perceive the executioner as "violent", though we may talk, in a more metaphorical way, of the state acting violently.
Likewise, understandings of violence are linked to a perceived aggressor-victim relationship: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence" write that violence is inherent in humans, though not inevitable. Ury, editor of a book called "Must We Fight? The conclusion is that "we also have lots of natural mechanisms for cooperation, to keep conflict in check, to channel aggression, and to overcome conflict.
The Spanking Room (as the title suggests) is one part child-abuse tale, one part description of Jehovah's Witnesses from a terrorized child's perspective, and one part autobiography outlining the worst parts of a troubled childhood. This page is just one of this website's over 2, pages of factual documentation and resources on corporal punishment around the world. Have a look at the site's front page or go to the explanatory page, About this website. Issues on Spanking There is also the fact that spanking can be very damaging to a growing child’s physical and psychological well-being. Alfredo: “The father did ask social workers about what he could use for physical punishment and discipline. They told him that you can use it, if you leave no marks.
These are just as natural to us as the aggressive tendencies. They suggest that research typically focuses on lethal violence, often looks at homicide rates of death due to warfarebut ignore the less obvious forms of violence.
Kaplan introduces the notion of liberating violence. According to Kaplan, we will observe more violent civil wars in the future, which will be fought due to economic inequalities around the world.
It has been discussed at length by researchers in sociology  medical anthropology  psychology philosophy and bioarchaeology. He writes that "Buss and Shackelford a proposed seven adaptive problems our ancestors recurrently faced that might have been solved by aggression: He argues that such conflicts occur when there is a status dispute between men of relatively similar status.From a physical perspective, ladies briefs are not that different from their male equivalent.
Whilst they may fit rather more snugly than your husband is used to, and make going to the toilet slightly more inconvenient, their power is predominantly psychological. The second is, does physical punishment really work to control a child’s behavior in the moment?
And there’s a third important question, seldom asked but certainly relevant and a good place for us to begin: what does spanking do to us as parents? What does spanking do to the parent?
Most parents feel angry when they spank. Spanking artist Jennifer writes, "As with many of my other drawings, these represent real life experiences of my teen years and in particular, the "discussions" I would have with my parents when I broke the rules. Issues on Spanking There is also the fact that spanking can be very damaging to a growing child’s physical and psychological well-being.
Alfredo: “The father did ask social workers about what he could use for physical punishment and discipline. They told him that you can use it, if you leave no marks. “The kids were fighting over a bouncy ball in the car on the way home from school.
I warned them that if they didn’t figure out a way to share it, then neither of them would get it. Spanking Can Be Sexual Abuse This page has been created to raise public awareness of spanking's sexual dimension, by which children and teens are vulnerable to exploitation under the cover of discipline.