A study at Dartmouth College of the English Wikipedia noted that, contrary to usual social expectations, anonymous editors were some of Wikipedia's most productive contributors of valid content.
What is this site about, who created it, and why?
Based on the literature review and these results, we proposed guidelines regarding appropriate procedures for assessment and reporting of this important aspect of content analysis. This supplemental online resource contains: Background information regarding what intercoder reliability is and why it's important A modified version of the guidelines from the article Descriptions of and recommendations regarding currently available software tools that researchers can use to calculate the different reliability indices Information about how to obtain and use the software Further clarification of issues related to reliability The online format will allow us to update the information as the tools, and perspectives on the different indices and their proper use, evolve.
What is intercoder reliability? Although in its generic use as an indication of measurement consistency this term is appropriate and is used here, Tinsley and Weissnote that the more specific term for the type of consistency required in content analysis is intercoder or interrater agreement.
Why should content analysis researchers care about intercoder reliability? As Neuendorf notes, "given that a goal of content analysis is to identify and record relatively objective or at least intersubjective characteristics of messages, reliability is Reliability of human memory.
Without the establishment of reliability, content analysis measures are useless" p. Kolbe and Burnett write that "interjudge reliability is often perceived as the standard measure of research quality. High levels of disagreement among judges suggest weaknesses in research methods, including the possibility of poor operational definitions, categories, and judge training" p.
A distinction is often made between the coding of manifest content, information "on the surface," and latent content under these surface elements. Potter and Levine-Donnerstein note that for latent content the coders must provide subjective interpretations based on their own mental schema and that this "only increases the importance of making the case that the judgments of coders are intersubjective, that is, those judgments, while subjectively derived, are shared across coders, and the meaning therefore is also likely to reach out to readers of the research" p.
There are important practical reasons to establish intercoder reliability too. Neuendorf argues that in addition to being a necessary, although not sufficient, step in validating a coding scheme, establishing a high level of reliability also has the practical benefit of allowing the researcher to divide the coding work among many different coders.
Rust and Cooil note that intercoder reliability is important to marketing researchers in part because "high reliability makes it less likely that bad managerial decisions will result from using the data" p.
The bottom line is that content analysis researchers should care about intercoder reliability because not only can its proper assessment make coding more efficient, without it all of their work - data gathering, analysis, and interpretation - is likely to be dismissed by skeptical reviewers and critics.
How should content analysis researchers properly assess and report intercoder reliability? First and most important, calculate and report intercoder reliability.
All content analysis projects should be designed to include multiple coders of the content and the assessment and reporting of intercoder reliability among them. Reliability is a necessary although not sufficient criterion for validity in the study and without it all results and conclusions in the research project may justifiably be doubted or even considered meaningless.
Follow these steps in order. Select one or more appropriate indices. Choose one or more appropriate indices of intercoder reliability based on the characteristics of the variables, including their level s of measurement, expected distributions across coding categories, and the number of coders.
If percent agreement is selected and this is not recommendeduse a second index that accounts for agreement expected by chance. Be prepared to justify and explain the selection of the index or indices. Note that the selection of index or indices must precede data collection and evaluation of intercoder reliability.
Obtain the necessary tools to calculate the index or indices selected.
Some of the indices can be calculated "by hand" although this may be quite tedious while others require automated calculation. A small number of specialized software applications as well as macros for established statistical software packages are available see How should researchers calculate intercoder reliability?
What software is available? Select an appropriate minimum acceptable level of reliability for the index or indices to be used.
Higher criteria should be used for indices known to be liberal i.Human memory is quite reliable with regard to everyday life for most people, but it is unreliable for certain types of domains, or relative to extreme requirements. Witness testemony, crucially, is highly unreliable at times. Do the subjects tell the truth?
|Subscribe to NeoAcademic||Not being specific enough leads to meaningless chatter and misunderstanding. If I have to ask several questions in order to understand what a person is saying and what their statement or comment meansthen the person giving that statement or comment either knows very little about what they are saying or they're trying to manipulate you.|
|Eyewitness Testimony | Simply Psychology||Many people have requested information from the Foundation, and this FAQ document was written in response to the questions asked most often.|
|Religious conflict and violence||At one time, memory researchers believed that human memory worked like a video recorder.|
The reliability of self-report data is an Achilles’ heel of survey research. For example, opinion polls indicated that more than 40 percent of Americans attend church every week.
The reliability of human memory, though typically seen as quite accurate and trust- worthy, has been questioned by researchers in recent decades. Reliability of the Human Memory Words Feb 2nd, 5 Pages The human memory is a complex finding in the cognitive research of psychology, which can be explained by many different contributing factors but eyewitness is dependent upon the accuracy of long-term memory.
Eyewitness memory is a person's episodic memory for a crime or other dramatic event that he or she has witnessed. Eyewitness testimony is often relied upon in the judicial nationwidesecretarial.com can also refer to an individual's memory for a face, where they are required to remember the face of their perpetrator, for example.
However, the accuracy of eyewitness memories is sometimes questioned because. Eyewitness testimony is an important area of research in cognitive psychology and human memory. Juries tend to pay close attention to eyewitness testimony and generally find it a reliable source of nationwidesecretarial.com: Saul Mcleod.