ATC also applied other alternative dispute resolution mechanisms that included reconciliation, mediation and arbitration. However, they instituted the Courts Actions as the last resort, because the people since time immemorial were aware of the fact that the Court proceedings were naturally adversarial. Hitherto, there existed two systems — one for the African native and another for European settlers. In three major laws were enacted.
For example, the Citizen Report Card survey showed that users of water kiosks in cities fetch water 4—6 times per day. In Kisumu, this meant that a poor household spent minutes per day to fetch water at normal times, and as much as minutes per day during times of scarcity.
Some of the most important indicators of service quality are water quality, continuity of water supply and wastewater treatment. If the number of samples taken was lower than foreseen in the standard, the compliance was rated lower. A citizens' report carried out in NairobiMombasa and Kisumu in provided information about customers' perception of water quality: Even so, the vast majority of respondents treat water prior to consumption, which shows continuing uncertainty about its quality.
The Impact Report reports an average supply of 18 hours per day, up from 14 hours in Only in nine mostly small WSPs water is provided continuously 24 hours per day. In Nairobi water is provided on average for 18 hours a day and in Mombasa for 6 hours.
The greatest difference between the poor and non-poor was recorded in Nairobi, where poor households were more than twice as likely to say they experienced scarcity. A higher percentage of kiosk users reported scarcity than households with mains connections, suggesting that in times of scarcity kiosks are less likely to receive water than domestic connections.
According to an assessment report carried out inthere are 43 sewerage systems in Kenya and waste water treatment plants in 15 towns total population served: The main reasons for this inefficiency are inadequate operation and maintenance and low connection rate to sewers.
One of them is the Dandora Waste Stabilisation Pond System which treats the industrial and domestic sewage from the city of Nairobi and is the largest pond system in Africa. Pit latrine users from Nairobi, Kisumu and Mombasa indicated that some wastewater empties into storm sewers, soak-aways and cess pits designed for kitchen waste, thus causing environmental pollution.
Raw sewage was discharged from sewage treatment works into a nearby river and caused the death of 28 people who used the water downstream for domestic purposes. The renewable freshwater resources of Kenya are estimated at Most parts of the country have two rainy seasons.
The long rains are typically from March to May while short rains are typically from October to November. The latest severe drought was from to the end ofwhich had impacts on all sectors of the economy.
Kenya is divided into five drainage basins. The closed Rift Valley Inland Drainage system includes a number of rivers and lakes, including large freshwater lakes such as Lake TurkanaLake Baringo and Lake Naivasharivers such as the Kerio Riveras well as a number of salt lakes.
Only the Tana and Lake Victoria Basins, have surplus water resources while the three other basins face deficits. The capital city Nairobi receives its water resources from two drainage systems: Beginnings[ edit ] The history of piped water supply in Kenya can be traced back to the period of the East African Protectorate.
At that time water supply was focused on the needs of colonial settlements. The administration of water supply was carried out by the Hydraulic Branch of the Public Works Department, which started operating in the coastal city of Mombasa. The construction of the Uganda Railway in provided an important impetus for the development of water pipelines in the interior of the country along the railway line.
Colonial period[ edit ] Between and independence in the first attempts were made at regulating water supply in the colony and protectorate of Kenyawhile responsibility was shared by many institutions.
In the s and early 60s, responsibility for the administration of water supply was split between three institutions: Bulk water to Mombasa was provided by the Mombasa Pipeline Work, while day-to-day operations of water pipelines were carried out by the water department. There was no single framework for the administration and management of water.
In the Water Act Cap was enacted, which remained the legal basis for the water sector until In the sanitation subsector there was no functioning institutional framework either. Officially, the Public Health Ordinance gave the Ministry of Health the role of administering sanitation, but it was rarely enforced.
The local population, moreover, was reluctant to adopt sanitary measures imposed by the colonial government. Between and intense public health education campaigns were carried out which led to the diffusion of pit latrines.
During the Mau Mau uprising Africans were concentrated in detention camps and local markets were kept closed out of fear of rebellion. This led to the neglect of adequate sanitation and in the proliferation of communal latrines.
The distribution of responsibilities and authority was, however, unclear and led to bottlenecks and inefficiencies.
As a result, water tariffs between and were heavily subsidised and in contradiction with the principle of operating cost recovery. Throughout the s, the Environmental Sanitation Programme supported by WHO - UNICEF was carried out in Kenya with the aims of developing water supplies for small rural communities, improving waste disposal methods and providing sanitary education for the rural population.
In about rural water supply schemes were running in Kenya and provided water to a population of about , UNICEF reported. Local communities also started developing their own water supplies and set up water committees:Coordinates. Kenya (/ ˈ k ɛ n j ə /; locally ()), officially the Republic of Kenya (Swahili: Jamhuri ya Kenya), is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in nationwidesecretarial.com's territory lies on the equator and overlies the East African Rift, covering a diverse and expansive terrain that extends roughly from Lake Victoria to Lake Turkana (formerly called Lake Rudolf) and further.
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Coordinates. Kenya (/ ˈ k ɛ n j ə /; locally (listen)), officially the Republic of Kenya (Swahili: Jamhuri ya Kenya), is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in nationwidesecretarial.com's territory lies on the equator and overlies the East African Rift, covering a diverse and expansive terrain that extends roughly from Lake Victoria to Lake Turkana (formerly called Lake Rudolf) and.