Reid, PhD; Timothy S.
Chapter References Marketing information must be timely, organised, useful and in a simple form if it is to ease decision making. It should also be easily manipulated to satisfy the changing and ad hoc requirements of management for information. There is more to marketing information than marketing research.
Indeed, marketing research is a subsystem of the marketing information system. A Marketing Information System MIS is a structure within an organisation designed to gather, process and store data from the organisation's external and internal environment and to disseminate this in the form of information to the organisation's marketing decision makers.
Chapter Objectives The objectives of this chapter are: Structure Of The Chapter At the outset of the chapter a strong case is made for studying secondary data before engaging in primary research. The potential benefits of beginning any study with secondary data are outlined, including the prospect that in some cases possession of relevant secondary data may obviate the need for primary research to be undertaken at all.
This discussion is followed by an overview of the questions that should be asked when evaluating secondary sources and data in terms of their validity and accuracy.
Thereafter, the principal internal and external sources of secondary data are described. The final section of this chapter briefly points towards future developments in the storage and retrieval of secondary data. The nature of secondary sources of information Secondary data is data which has been collected by individuals or agencies for purposes other than those of our particular research study.
For example, if a government department has conducted a survey of, say, family food expenditures, then a food manufacturer might use this data in the organisation's evaluations of the total potential market for a new product.
Similarly, statistics prepared by a ministry on agricultural production will prove useful to a whole host of people and organisations, including those marketing agricultural supplies. No marketing research study should be undertaken without a prior search of secondary sources also termed desk research.
There are several grounds for making such a bold statement. Sometimes primary data collection simply is not necessary.
For the same level of research budget a thorough examination of secondary sources can yield a great deal more information than can be had through a primary data collection exercise.
This is not always true but where a government or international agency has undertaken a large scale survey, or even a census, this is likely to yield far more accurate results than custom designed and executed surveys when these are based on relatively small sample sizes.
The assembly and analysis of secondary data almost invariably improves the researcher's understanding of the marketing problem, the various lines of inquiry that could or should be followed and the alternative courses of action which might be pursued.
Secondary data can be extremely useful both in defining the population and in structuring the sample to be taken. For instance, government statistics on a country's agriculture will help decide how to stratify a sample and, once sample estimates have been calculated, these can be used to project those estimates to the population.
The problems of secondary sources Whilst the benefits of secondary sources are considerable, their shortcomings have to be acknowledged. There is a need to evaluate the quality of both the source of the data and the data itself. The main problems may be categorised as follows: Definitions The researcher has to be careful, when making use of secondary data, of the definitions used by those responsible for its preparation.
Suppose, for example, researchers are interested in rural communities and their average family size. If published statistics are consulted then a check must be done on how terms such as "family size" have been defined.
They may refer only to the nucleus family or include the extended family. Even apparently simple terms such as 'farm size' need careful handling. Such figures may refer to any one of the following: It should be noted that definitions may change over time and where this is not recognised erroneous conclusions may be drawn.
Geographical areas may have their boundaries redefined, units of measurement and grades may change and imported goods can be reclassified from time to time for purposes of levying customs and excise duties. The only solution is to try to speak to the individuals involved in the collection of the data to obtain some guidance on the level of accuracy of the data.
The problem is sometimes not so much 'error' but differences in levels of accuracy required by decision makers. When the research has to do with large investments in, say, food manufacturing, management will want to set very tight margins of error in making market demand estimates.
In other cases, having a high level of accuracy is not so critical. For instance, if a food manufacturer is merely assessing the prospects for one more flavour for a snack food already produced by the company then there is no need for highly accurate estimates in order to make the investment decision.
Source bias Researchers have to be aware of vested interests when they consult secondary sources. Those responsible for their compilation may have reasons for wishing to present a more optimistic or pessimistic set of results for their organisation.
It is not unknown, for example, for officials responsible for estimating food shortages to exaggerate figures before sending aid requests to potential donors.Here in this topic of consumer research they are trying to identify reasons for purchasing a product, usually customers hesitates to reveal their reasons or motivational factor which made them to purchase a product or service at that time the consumer researchers use the two different types of research methodology to study consumer behavior: quantitative research and qualitative research.
This compilation of concise descriptions of research methods and techniques, accompanied by references for further reading, is intended to support research teams as they incorporate various multidisciplinary research methods and techniques.
source url Secondary Research is a common research method; it involves using information that others have gathered through primary research.
Internal Secondary Data consists of information gathered within researcher’s firm (i.e. customers databases and reports from past primary research). Jun 06, · One of' the most overlooked sources of internal secondary data is internal experts.
An internal expert is anyone employed by the firm who has special knowledge. The following statement by a senior research manager at a major consumer goods firm describes why his organization developed a research reports library and how they .
Contact Information for Sponsored Research in Research & Innovation at the University of South Florida. John Locke (—) John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century.
He is often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government.