Learning Strategies for Constructing Meaning Students can be helped to learn strategies in a variety of ways. Some strategy learning takes place through reading and writing experiences Dole et al. Thematic units with authentic literature provide students with opportunities to utilize the same strategies and skills across a theme.
Multiple Choice Types of comprehension As noted previously, the six types of comprehension that we propose and discuss are based on our experiences in teaching reading and developing materials.
We do not intend this taxonomy to cover all possible interpretations of comprehension; we have found the six types to be useful in helping our students become interactive readers. Our taxonomy has been influenced in particular by the work of Pearson and Johnson and Nuttall Questions of literal comprehension can be answered directly and explicitly from the text.
In our experiences working with teachers, we have found that they often check on literal comprehension first to make sure that their students have understood the basic or surface meaning of the text. An example of a literal comprehension question about this article is: How many types of comprehension do the authors discuss?
Reorganization The next type of comprehension is reorganization. Reorganization is based on a literal understanding of the text; students must use information from various parts of the text and combine them for additional understanding. For example, we might read at the beginning of a text that a woman named Maria Kim was born in and then later at the end of the text that she died in In order to answer this question, How old was Maria Kim when she died?
Questions that address this type of comprehension are important because they teach students to examine the text in its entirety, helping them move from a sentence-by-sentence consideration of the text to a more global view.
In our experience, students generally find reorganization questions somewhat more difficult than straightforward literal comprehension questions. Inference Making inferences involves more than a literal understanding. Students may initially have a difficult time answering inference questions because the answers are based on material that is in the text but not explicitly stated.
An inference involves students combining their literal understanding of the text with their own knowledge and intuitions. An example of a question that requires the reader to make an inference is: Are the authors of this article experienced language teachers?
The answer is not in the text but there is information in the third paragraph, page 2 of this article that allows the reader to make a good inference: That is, readers might understand that newcomers to the profession generally do not develop materials or write articles, so the authors are probably experienced language teachers.
Prediction The fourth comprehension type, prediction, involves students using both their understanding of the passage and their own knowledge of the topic and related matters in a systematic fashion to determine what might happen next or after a story ends.
We use two varieties of prediction, while-reading and post- after reading. While-reading prediction questions differ from post-reading prediction questions in that students can immediately learn the accuracy of their predictions by continuing to read the passage.
For example, students could read the first two paragraphs of a passage and then be asked a question about what might happen next.Grade 5 – Integrated Curriculum Language Arts, Math, Science, Social Studies, The Arts and World Languages.
Increase reading through daily independent reading practice as monitored by the instructor Read and construct meaning from a variety of genres.
In the traditional classroom where language is privileged over other ways of knowing, opportunities to construct meaning through art diminish as learners progress to higher grades and reading and writing therefore shift to the more common curricular resources of the classroom.
Uses appropriate reading strategies to construct meaning in a specific context. Begins to respond to the interpretative processes of. her/his peers. Begins to adapt some familiar structures and features.
Develop own interests and passions through reading. Use own writing as texts. Develops preferred reading strategies when meaning- TRATEGIES The student uses the following repertoire of strategies to construct meaning from texts: • The four cuing systems, which include: Develop own interests and passions through reading.
Use own writing as texts. Various activities that connect reading and writing were discussed. Process writing was developed as a major procedure for helping students learn to construct meaning through writing.
A sample writing lesson using the Shared Writing Routine was presented. Discuss how you involved the student in responding through writing during these activities (e.g., book reading, discussions, journals, etc.). • Describe the student's reading and writing ability at the outset of the three-week to three-.