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Explain the structure of the cerebral cortex its hemispheres and lobes and the function of each area of the cortex. Define the concepts of brain plasticity, neurogenesis, and brain lateralization. If you were someone who understood brain anatomy and were to look at the brain of an animal that you had never seen before, you would nevertheless be able to deduce the likely capacities of the animal.
This is because the brains of all animals are very similar in overall form. In each animal the brain is layered, and the basic structures of the brain are similar see Figure 3.
The innermost structures of the brain—the parts nearest the spinal cord—are the oldest part of the brain, and these areas carry out the same the functions they did for our distant ancestors.
Mammals, including humans, have developed further brain layers that provide more advanced functions—for instance, better memory, more sophisticated social interactions, and the ability to experience emotions.
Emotional intelligence is a topic that is attracting a considerable amount of popular attention. Some of the discussion is, in my view, superficial and misleading. In this paper, I shall focus on the problems inherent in the manner in which the idea of emotional intelligence is being conceptualized and presented. Metacognition refers to a level of thinking that involves active control over the process of thinking that is used in learning situations. Planning the way to approach a learning task, monitoring comprehension, and evaluating the progress towards the completion of a task: these are skills that are metacognitive in . Logic principle. Principles > Logic principle. Principle | How it works | So what?. Principle. What makes sense must be true. How it works. In our non-stop quest to understand and control the world around us, we seek rational truth that makes sense to us.
Humans have a very large and highly developed outer layer known as the cerebral cortex see Figure 3. Adapted from Camazine, S. Images of the brain. Medical, science, and nature things: Photography and digital imagery by Scott Camazine. The cortex provides humans with excellent memory, outstanding cognitive skills, and the ability to experience complex emotions.
Adapted from Wikia Education. Wired for Survival The brain stem The oldest and innermost region of the brain, it serves to control the most basic functions of life, including breathing, attention, and motor responses.
The brain stem begins where the spinal cord enters the skull and forms the medulla The area of the brain stem that controls heart rate and breathing. In many cases the medulla alone is sufficient to maintain life—animals that have the remainder of their brains above the medulla severed are still able to eat, breathe, and even move.
The spherical shape above the medulla is the pons A structure in the brain stem that helps control the movements of the body, playing a particularly important role in balance and walking.
Running through the medulla and the pons is a long, narrow network of neurons known as the reticular formation A long, narrow network of neurons that runs through the medulla and the pons. The job of the reticular formation is to filter out some of the stimuli that are coming into the brain from the spinal cord and to relay the remainder of the signals to other areas of the brain.
The reticular formation also plays important roles in walking, eating, sexual activity, and sleeping. When electrical stimulation is applied to the reticular formation of an animal, it immediately becomes fully awake, and when the reticular formation is severed from the higher brain regions, the animal falls into a deep coma.
Above the brain stem are other parts of the old brain that also are involved in the processing of behavior and emotions see Figure 3. The thalamus The egg-shaped structure above the brain stem that filters sensory information coming up from the spinal cord and relays signals to the higher brain levels.
Exploring the thalamus and its role in cortical function 2nd ed. The thalamus is also important in sleep because it shuts off incoming signals from the senses, allowing us to rest. The cerebellum Two wrinkled ovals located behind the brain stem that function to coordinate voluntary movement.
It functions to coordinate voluntary movement. People who have damage to the cerebellum have difficulty walking, keeping their balance, and holding their hands steady. Consuming alcohol influences the cerebellum, which is why people who are drunk have more difficulty walking in a straight line.
Rethinking the lesser brain. Scientific American,50— Whereas the primary function of the brain stem is to regulate the most basic aspects of life, including motor functions, the limbic system is largely responsible for memory and emotions, including our responses to reward and punishment.
The limbic system A brain area located between the brain stem and the two cerebral hemispheres that governs emotion and memory. It includes the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus.Language is the process of thinking. We think with language.
It is absurd to talk about thinking without language. On the other hand 'language' and 'thinking' has a wide variety of definitions. Emotional intelligence is a topic that is attracting a considerable amount of popular attention.
Some of the discussion is, in my view, superficial and misleading. In this paper, I shall focus on the problems inherent in the manner in which the idea of emotional intelligence is being conceptualized and presented.
Aug 29, · SINCE THERE IS NO EVIDENCE that any language forbids its speakers to think anything, we must look in an entirely different direction to discover how our mother tongue really does shape our. Thought comes before language or thought and language are interdependent processes?
Our thoughts are not limited by any language - but our language is . Furthermore, they discovered an important and unexpected principle of brain activity.
They found that stimulating the right side of the brain produced movement in the left side of the dog’s body, and vice versa.
This finding follows from a general principle about how the brain is structured, called contralateral control. The brain is wired such that in most cases the left hemisphere receives sensations from and .
No one would disagree with the claim that language and thought interact in many significant ways. the idea that different languages may influence thinking in different ways has been present in many cultures and has given rise to many philosophical treatises.
to organize it in this way—an agreement that holds throughout our speech.